Friday, December 6, 2019
Question: Discuss About The School Based Suicide Prevention Programmes? Answer: Introducation Incidents of teenage suicide among Singapore citizens have grabbed significant attention in recent times, entailing the urgent implementation of preventive strategies. The social factors that contribute to increased suicidal tendencies among teenagers in the country are to be addressed adequately if a positive change is to be brought about at the earliest. The present essay discusses how a national wide campaign could be implemented for the promotion of awareness of suicide risk factors among teenagers in Singapore. The paper would also address factors in society that contribute to the increased risk of suicide among the selected population in the country. The suicide rate is an important marker of the health of a nation. It is a notable cause of mortality in youth and adolescents, and it has been noted that suicide has peak prevalence in adolescence in a number of countries. Suicide among teenagers poses a great burden to individuals, their families and society (Chen et al., 2011). The teenage suicide rate in Singapore has drawn the attention of the concerned authorities who are still struggling to find effective and apt strategies that can prevent the nursing prevalence of this issue among the population. Suicides among teenagers have become a significant element of the national healthcare agenda that points out the failure of healthcare bodies to address the concern adequately. The year 2015 saw Singapore make a record of the most number of teen suicides in one and half decade. 27 teenagers had committed suicide in the year 2015, aged between 10 and 19 years. This number was significantly high from 13 teenagers committing suicide in 2014 (Tianjie, 2016). Chia and Chia (2012) pointed out that young adults in Singapore who reach out to suicide prevention agencies cite academic pressure, mental health concerns and social relationships as the maximum source of stress. Individuals who are secretive, and suffer from issues of self-esteem and problem solving skills are at higher risk of attempting suicide. In addition to commonly known causes of stress suffered such as academic and social issues, other emerging factors also contribute to high suicide rates, including cyber bullying. Individuals suffering from mental illness are more likely to commit suicide. Having a negative influence on people both physically and psychologically, the mental health conditions are known to directly contribute to suicidal behaviour. For the past few years, the official bodies governing public health are encouraging people to fight against suicidal tendencies, but suicide prevention has been felt to be more than the creation of awareness. What is needed at th e resent hour is the right conversations about suicide. The lack of sensitivity among the public till now reflects the crucial need for the teenagers to have a better understanding of the risk factors for suicide and the turmoil it brings along. There is a pervasiveness of misconceptions regarding suicide among the society, and thus it is vital to creating a supportive environment for those who are at risk (Chia Chia, 2012). The government of Singapore in collaboration with the different noted public healthcare organisations must come forward to develop, produce and disseminate targeted, safe and effective suicide prevention awareness campaign. The key to raise awareness about the risk factors of suicide among teenagers lies in the suitable combination of national multimedia public service announcements and dissemination of suicide prevention awareness materials (Loh et al., 2012). The national campaign is to be based on five fundamental elements, drawing in from a pool of evidence available on the success of previous similar campaigns of other countries. The campaign is to be implemented following a series of five steps- evaluation of relevant data; review of risk factors of suicide; emphasis on powerful and hopeful messaging; utilisation of effective resources; and empowerment of participants with tools to communicate (Kahn Lester, 2013). The first step of the national campaign would be segmenting the audience and evaluation of suicide risk factors specific for Singapore. Segmenting the audience around age, shared values and cultural backgrounds would be crucial in the development of the campaign. Suicidal attempts, planning and thoughts have been found to be significantly higher among teenagers above the age of 15 years in Singapore. The age group of 15-28 years would be the primary target audience for this campaign. Both the genders would be given equal weight in the campaign as there are negligible differences among male and female when it comes to the suicide rate. It would be equally significant to put the focus on the nuances within the target audience (Kahn Lester, 2013). The second stage would be to review suicide awarningsigns.Extensive research is to be undertaken to highlight the signs of suicidal thoughts that are to be addressed in the first place. Knowing the differences between self-harm, suicidal behaviour and high-risk improve the outreach efforts. In the Singapore context, it has been found that mental disorders, substance abuse and life events equally contribute to suicidal tendencies. The third and successive step would be to emphasise powerful and hopeful messaging. The campaign facilitator has the key responsibility of developing a strong message that can attract the attention of the target audience and compel them to think in the direction as desired. While developing the message, it is necessary to emphasise on the hope of recovery through the messaging. The power of personal and long-standing relationships are to be highlighted in due course. One must avoid reporting that suicide has a key link with any single event. Further, suicide is not to be framed as an inexplicable or is not supposed to be normalised (Kahn Lester, 2013). The fourth and most significant step would be to utilise effective and valuable resources. Sufficient workforce who are skilled and competent would be needed for this purpose who are to exhibit collaboration and leadership (Kahn Lester, 2013). Further, sustained funding is to be made possible by government funding. In addition to finance, human resources would be a significant tangible factor for the ultimate outcome of the campaign. Most important would be however the promotional materials selected. The public service announcements would be done on radios, television, print ads, digital banner advertisements and billboards. Suicide risk factor and impact awareness materials specific for the target group are to be made in the form of posters, brochures and classroom curriculum. Billboard graphics are a good medium for reaching to the audience around the year. Brochures and posters are effective in reaching out to the audience in schools, clinics, and other community settings. Educat ional and interactive programs can be designed for schools. Print advertisement graphics are to be used for distribution to magazines, specifically teen magazines, newspapers and other print publications (Wasserman et al., 2015). Research indicates that specific materials are more effective and have been more successful in the past in other countries in reaching the target audience. Empowering the participants to understand the risk factors for suicide is essential and the last step. The overarching goal of all campaigns rests in the implementation of the plan outlined. With the audience in mind, a slogan is to e created, and outreach materials are to be made. The participants are to be empowered for speaking up and coming forward with their concerns. Further, they are to be taught to respond to the materials appropriately. Participants are also to be equipped with tools for support and help (McKenzie et al., 2016). In conclusion, by exploring the popular trend among Singapore culture to focus on multimedia public service announcements together with the exploitation of the potential of awareness materials, attention can be brought to the issue of high risk of suicide in the country. It is expected that with adequate funding from the government and employment of skilled workforce, the national campaign would be effective in spreading awareness of suicide risk factors among teenagers in Singapore. References Chen, Y. Y., Chien-Chang Wu, K., Yousuf, S., Yip, P. S. (2011). Suicide in Asia: opportunities and challenges.economics reviews,34(1), 129-144. Chia, B. H., Chia, A. (2012). Prevention of suicide in Singapore.Annals of the Academy of Medicine-Singapore,41(9), 375. Kahn, D. L., Lester, D. (2013). Efforts to decriminalize suicide in Ghana, India and Singapore.Suicidology Online,4, 96-104. Loh, C., Tai, B. C., Ng, W. Y., Chia, A., Chia, B. H. (2012). Suicide in young Singaporeans aged 1024 years between 2000 to 2004.Archives of suicide research,16(2), 174-182. McKenzie, J. F., Neiger, B. L., Thackeray, R. (2016).Planning, implementing evaluating health promotion programs: A primer. Pearson. Tianjie, W. (2016). Teen suicides highest in 15 years but overall rate falls: SOS.The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/teen-suicides-highest-in-15-years-but-overall-rate-falls Wasserman, D., Hoven, C. W., Wasserman, C., Wall, M., management, R., Hadlaczky, G., ... Bobes, J. (2015). School-based suicide prevention programmes: the SEYLE cluster-randomised, controlled trial.The Lancet,385(9977), 1536-1544.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Introduction This paper presents a research project about Virgin Group. Richard Branson laid the foundation for the organization. It expanded from a small business venture publishing magazines to the present diversified international investment. The path to success involved intense research and formulation of strategic plans. Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Virgin Group Marketing Performance specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Under organizational plan, the research project will enumerate on how research and development brought about existence of Virgin Group. Its system of management is decentralized which then empowers individuals to share ideas, values and experiences for the common good. The essay will further discuss marketing strategy of 4Ps as utilized in Virgin Group. Background of Virgin Group Development of the business started with Richard Branson when he was a student at a boarding school. Bran son was motivated by the success of his magazine which was published in 1968. He therefore quit school to conduct magazine business. Branson later undertook advertisement of mail order records on student magazine. Entry into joint ventures accelerated the rate of expansion and differentiation. The business name Ã¢â¬ËVirginÃ¢â¬â¢ was suggested by BransonÃ¢â¬â¢s business associate who thought that the business possessed some commercial purity, originality and high value. In 1985, Richard Branson looked into the possibility of expanding the capital base of the business by way of an initial public offer. Subsequently, 35 % of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s equity was listed on the London stock market. From 1990 Ã¢â¬â 2001 Virgin groups expanded intensely after Branson entered into joint ventures with other business including one of the leading Japanese retailers, Marui. There were opportunities which favored the new ventures. One of them was Ã¢â¬Ëprivatization and deregulation in Brit ainÃ¢â¬â¢, Ansoff, (113). This is apparent in its successful bids for west Coast rail and Cross country services which resulted in Virgin rail. Deregulation is obvious in acquisition of Euro Belgian Airlines that was re-launched as Virgin Express. Ã¢â¬ËVirgin group also expanded due to the possibility of selling goods and services directly to the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ Branson (11). Richard took up this opportunity to searching for innovative business contract with its customers. On a higher scale, Virgin Group saw tremendous change from the explosion of information communication technology and media such that a joint venture between telephone operator NTl and virgin was sealed (Branson, 16). By the year 2004, virgin group of companies had expanded to over 200 ventures with its core on travel business, mobile, monetary, vend music and internet.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF L earn More Organization of virgin group The investment has continually registered success derived from the concept of team spirit. Virgin aims at bringing about difference in their area of operation starting from transport to retail business. It utilizes forward planning criteria which have assisted management in setting objectives for the diversified business investment. Decision makers in Virgin Group integrate both risks and research and development in their planning process. Most of the business venture entered into by Virgin involved extensive research and in-depth analysis. The way to success for Richard captured an aspect of risk-taking with a sole intent to win innovations in the market place (Allen, 21). This also went a long way in pleasing the target customer through product improvement and differentiation. The company does not distinguish bureaucracy in its management hence flow of information is free and originates from a diversified spring. This decentralized system of management allows sharing of ambitions, concerns and even expertise. Solving a problem is fast and easy if teamwork is built in employees. Performance of virgin group Virgin Group has expanded to more than 200 companies in thirty countries. Its revenues exceeded Ã £11 billion with an approximately number of employees being 50,000 people in 29 countries. Richard Branson who controls the company announced that profits were an approxiamately GBP 68.4 pound which is an increment from the previous yearÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings. This was attributed to its diversified business venture and the launching of airlines between Australian and Tokyo in Japan. The profits contrast sharply with pre tax loss made by the British Airlines. GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s sales level for the year ended 2009 increased to 2.579 billion pounds up from the previous year. This figure included sales from virgin holiday. The profits was an outcome of new polices regarding premium travel and enhanced services in the travel sect or which subsequently attracted about 5.77m passengers for the ended 2009. Alliance between Virgin Atlantic and Regus group in May 2009 benefitted flyer program. If global recession is brought under control, it is most likely that Virgin Group will generate more sales and profits.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Virgin Group Marketing Performance specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marketing Organizations struggle to capture new customers and preserve old once in a competitive environment. This is among the aims of forming marketing strategy for a business i.e. to be competitive in the globalised world (Wright, 12). While recognizing the fact that Virgin Group is an international company with customers located in various countries, consumer based approach to marketing is utilized. The company conducts research about customer preferences on a continuous basis. This allows them to avail products which are m ore preferred by the customer. They can further improve their services after evaluating feedback from the customer. Virgin integrates the following dimensions in marketing their product and services: product, position, price and promotion (Mohan, 42). The virgin Brand The strength of Virgin brand found application in many businesses including airline, Virgin Media, financial sectors, motor vehicle industry, train services and even telecommunication industry (Wright, 13). The brand values pleasure, value for money, superiority of the product, improvement, aggressive challenge and excellent customer service. It despises incompetence, simplicity, and disregard to customer care. Virgin group gives licenses to its subsidiary business units but for the case of Virgin mobile in Australia owned by Singtel Optus, the arrangement was a simple agreement for license. Virgin Management Limited is part of VirginÃ¢â¬â¢s Group shareholder that manages the interest of Richard Brandon. VML also ac ts as a service sector providing recommendations and management services to companies in Virgin Group. Any investment decisions are channeled through Virgin Management limited before executing them. Products Sectors in Virgin Group offer competitive products and services. The travel sector provides Virgin Atlantic and Virgin Travel. There are also Virgin books which publish and distribute books with other stationeries. Virgin holiday is characterized by the ability of the customer to book a holiday and fly Atlantic. Other products available to the customer are the independent recording label V2 music and fitness clubs located throughout UK. Pricing strategy Pricing strategy employed by Virgin group is highly sensitive to the demand and affordability of the customer. An example in the travel sector is Virgin Atlantic which offers a variety of six price level for the customer to choose from. Their objective is to ensure that customers get value for what they spend. It is essential to note that customers are ready to expend their money if the level of satisfaction is greater especially in Britain where standards of living are high (Chekitan, 10). This is the reason why Virgin Group offers competitive products and services. Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Group bases its pricing strategy on factors which affect the global market. Examples of these externalities include: inflation, interest rates, political instability, recent global recession and natural disaster i.e. volcanic eruption. Richard developed Ã¢â¬Ëpremium-tizationÃ¢â¬â¢ an aspect which brings about division of market. The trend forces consumers to demand quality product at a higher price level. Place (Market segmentation) This signifies a location area where a product meets the consumer. Segmentation as utilized by virgin group is an important element where leadership in the market is still in its development stages. There has been tendency by the organization to establish itself well especially in its best and specialty sectors. Some of the strong holds of the company are: the transport sector i.e. airline subsector, newly established mobile stores in Europe and United States (Bower, 21). Rapid expansion of distribution network and development in airline industry is a trend towards achieving customer satisfaction. In addition to market segmentation, virgin group is capitalizing on the new world order of e-commerce. The company can now deliver products and services to its clients at any position in the globe within the shortest time possible via electronic purchase and physical delivery using cargo planes. Virgin is always in the forefront following its ability to implement actions within a recommended time frame. Promotion To reach intended customers, advertising and other aspects of promotion must be employed as a marketing strategy (Kotler, 39). Various channels of communication are exploited with an objective of conveying relevant information about a product or a service to potential customers. Any successful advertisement brings about increased sales and ultimately more revenue to the market. Promotion plays a vital role in growth of Virgin Group by a system of taking information about their product and service to the proximity of the customer (Anon, 15). Internet advertisement regarding quality services offered by Virgin Trains and Atlantic is advantageous to customers since it helps them in making choices before booking. Discounts given on advanced booking and favorable deal to those travelling in group is an incentive to customers. Websites for these transport sectors are very efficient such that it has received an Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËAAÃ¢â¬â¢ rating by the WCAG (Bower, 15). Access to the website is fast enough to guarantee immediate dissemination of information. This is one of the best criteria to expose a product to its customers. Success of virgin is credited to the whole workforce whose talents are challenged constantly by the ever changing consumer environment. Absence of bureaucracy in Virgin Group givens people an opportunity to share their skills, values, ideas and expertise in a positive manner. According to (Koichi, 52), a performing organization is most likely to receive both media and cus tomerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Recommendations After a profound analysis of marketing strategy engaged by Virgin Group, it is prudent to consider a variety of strategy options available to the management. The management may rethink integrating in the planning process both inside and outside environment of the companies. This means that management must review social, political and demographic descriptions affecting directly or indirectly running of the business. These external variables are critical in developing internal strength i.e. customer experience, technological progress, channel bonding, and market sensing. Highly globalised company has to consider centralizing its management so that information flow along the bureaucratic channel is retained. A centralized management as well means that a person who is given certain responsibilities must be answerable to a member at a higher rank. This will measure performance level of an individual in an office and consequently take control of its resources. Although virgin group values its customers, they must focus on building customer experience centers in their different locations. Apart from giving personalized service to their customers, the center will be mandated to supply the management with data regarding customersÃ¢â¬â¢ preferences. Such data is valuable when introducing a new product which will need to penetrate the market fast. Conclusion This paper offered a vivid explanation of the Virgin Group. Richard Branson orchestrated the inception of the firm after succeeding in his magazine venture. The business expanded from one business venture into a collection of more than 200 sectors in 20 countries. As detailed in the literature, profits of the group are always on the increase with a record of more than 68.4 billion pounds in the year ended May, 2009. Cumulatively, sales level reached a value of 2.579m while Virgin Atlantic registered a passenger rate of 5.77m during the financial yea r2009. The success of virgin group is attributed to high regard placed on customers in addition to marketing strategy employed. The paper is very clear on pricing, positioning, product and promotion strategy of the firm. As a policy recommendation virgin group should centralize the role of management in order to take a full control over its resources and also instill in individuals a sense of responsibility. Works Cited Allen, Katie. Ã¢â¬Å"Branson sells Virgin MegastoresÃ¢â¬ . The Guardian Newspaper 17 Sept. 2007: 20-21. Anon, Philips. Ã¢â¬Å"Virgin to close its West End make-up storeÃ¢â¬ . London Evening Standard Newspaper , 1 Feb. 2000: 15-20. Ansoff, Igor. Strategies for Diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35.5 (2001): 113- 124. Bower, Tom. Branson. 4th Estate: Limited publishers, 2001. Branson, Richard. Losing My Virginity. London: Virgin Books Limited, 2002. Chekitan, Dev, and Schultz, Don. Ã¢â¬Å"In the Mix: A Customer-Focused Approach Can Bring the Current Marketing Mix into the 21st C enturyÃ¢â¬ . Marketing Management 14 .1 (2005): 10-20. Koichi, Shimizu. Ã¢â¬Å"Advertising Theory and StrategiesÃ¢â¬ . Tokyo: Souseisha Book Company, 2009. Kotler, Philips, and Keller, Kevin. Ã¢â¬Å"1Ã¢â¬Å". A Framework for Marketing Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009. Mohan, Ramesh. International Marketing. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2005. Wright, Robins. Ã¢â¬Å"Branson urges Ã £1bn rail spendÃ¢â¬ . Financial times 20 May. 2009: 12-15. This research paper on Virgin Group Marketing Performance was written and submitted by user Rylen S. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Asian Indians in America essays Their struggle as immigrant minority and major contributions to the American society Asian Indians come from an area with the second largest population in the world, but form only one of the smallest minorities in the United States. America was influenced by their religious and political beliefs long before the first immigrants arrived in the 19th century. The congressional act of 1947 granted them citizenship. Now, Asian Indians hold many important occupations (students, teachers, writers, musicians, scientists). Their most important contributions are geared toward engineering and the sciences. India was in a great shape up until the end of 19th century. When British arrived, the country was depleted of its wealth and resources. The poor had no choice but to come to the United States (The Land of the Free and the Land of Opportunity). The United States, due to the abundance of jobs and scarcity of labor, became a Mecca for immigrants from all over the world. The United States, in the nineteenth century, remained a strong magnet to immigrants, with offers of jobs and land for farms. Asians and Italians came for work, Russians came to escape persecution, and Jews came for religious freedom. Immigrants from all over the world including Europe, China, and Japan wanted to experience the freedom of improving your life and being able to take care for ones family. East Indians represented a big group that wanted to take part in American culture. The large majorities from India were Punjabis, from a region called the Punjab. Most of these immigrants were young men, between 16 and 35 years old. They left their families in India, and came here in small groups of cousins and village neighbors. Thus, the family and community ties remained very strong. They had several reasons to come to America. They were repressed by the British rule and had no land to farm on. To make matters worse, famine dev...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Islamic art and architecture from the seventh to the thirteenth century - Essay Example IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s influence and presence in Spain dates back to the 9th century, when Muslims emigrated to the west. In 1492, most Muslims were expelled and the few who managed to stay back publicly proclaimed Catholicism to avoid expulsion. (Spain, Demographics, Euro-Islam info. Country profiles, euro-islam.info/pages/spain.html) The powerful Muslim armies in their quest for expansion began invading countries that stretched from the Western borders of India, across Persia and Northern Africa, to Spain and Southern France. In order to establish their faith in these countries, they constructed Mosques and prayer halls of architectural brilliance. They remained for 800 years in Europe until in 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella over-rode them. During their reign, the Muslims perceived the need to establish artistically styled monuments to help expand their faith and compete with other religions. Their success in this endeavor led to the presence of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s remarkable Arts & Architectures (The development of Islamic art: Graeco-Roman, Lesson 5 Art part: Islamic art, www.dartmouth.edu) 2.0 Executive Summary Art was predominant during the 7th to 13th century Europe. With the arrival of the Muslims, art was not just artistic, but it was purposeful as well. However, not all Islamic art had a specific religious purpose, unique to the Islamic faith. One of the most distinguishing features of Islamic art is the absence of an image of religious context. Idolatry is considered a grave sin. It is believed that any form of human worship is profane to the idea of Allah as the only God. This clearly distinguishes Islamic art from Christian and/or other religious arts. In architecture, painting, and carpet-weaving, Muslims limit their portrayals of humans or animals. To Muslims, decoration meant use of calligraphy, flowers and leaves. Geometrical and floral patterns also adorned Islamic art and architecture (The Islamic World to 1600, www.ucalgary.ca)3. This research paper will strive to identify the influences and brilliance of different Muslim art and architectural in Spain, and its impact on non-Muslim Spanish people. The paper also looks at the various centers of art in Spain. 3.0 Islamic Art and Architecture With the use of colors and balance between design and form, Islamic art creates a visual impact. Such is its artistic appeal that it transcends distance in time and space, as well as differences in language, culture, and creed. Islamic art not only invites a closer look but also beckons the viewer to learn more. Spain, along with other European countries like France, Germany, and Austria became targets for Muslim expansionism. The army brought with them their cultural and spiritual ideology. Their most important building was the mosque, followed by the royal palace. Early mosques were square in shape. Gradually with expansion in size and strength, this requirement led to larger and more elaborate prayer halls. In the late 8th century, Spain saw the construction of the Mosque of Cordoba, with a courtyard in the centre, roofed arcades, and minarets; towers that extend vertically. This mosque had a spacious hall to accommodate more worshippers, a definite move to encourage more and more worshippers and spread Islam. They were built solid to withstand external influences, a contrast to their palaces, which were built from unbaked bricks and/or plaster. The Muslim rulers were not too keen on permanent structures, preferring to abandon them later. The purpose to spread their religion led them to construct significant architectural marvels that would leave a lasting impression on the people. A few of these are mentioned herein:
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Review of Selected Journal Papers and Online Material - Essay Example Statisctics across the globe indicate an increase in emissions in the European Union between the years 1990-2006. The authors argue that though efforts have been made in increasing fuel efficiency, the emissions from the transport sector still pose a challenge. The article presents literature evidence on the positive impact of compact cities in mitigating emissions. The main argument of the article is that compact cities reduce the overall commuting length. The authors raise an argument concerning suitable policies that would make the positive effect last. They argue that though compacting cities reduce environmental pollution from the transport sector perspective, it may have a counter effect. People and firms may need to relocate due to the effect on wages and household rents. The authors of the article seek to establish the best policy tradeoff that would arrive at an appropriate population density that allows the environmental impact skew to the beneficial side (Gaigne, Riou, Thi sse, 2012, p. 1425). Stone, Hess and Frumkin (2010, p. 1425) do not support the opinion presented by Gaigne et al. In their article, they argue that the city form has a profound effect on the climate. Compact cities can encourage climate related fatalities. They raise the issue of Extreme Heat Events, a phenomenon that involves the rise of temperatures in the cities by a magnitude of up to 100C compared to surrounding countryside. Compact cities call for building configurations that aid in absorbing and trapping heat. Low-density land use and sprawling over expansive areas have a spillover effect due to the increasing distance. This is in agreement with Gaigne et al. Walters and Ewing (2009, p. 196) observed that vehicle and fuel technology were not sufficient in cutting the carbon dioxide emissions. Becky and Chow (2011, p. 552) also observed that reducing the vehicle miles could have a positive impact on reducing emissions. The two articles support the role compact cities would ha ve on reducing use of vehicles. Congestion in compact cities discourages people from using their own means of transport, thus cutting on the emissions. Congestion in the compact cities is a limiting factor. In addition to traffic congestion and air pollution, urban transport affects the climate (Creutzig & He, 2009, p. 120). Williams, Joynt and Hopkins (2010, p. 105) raise a concern that urban areas under consideration of compacting are not well adapted to deal with anticipated changes. Boussauw, Neutens and Witlox (2012, p. 687) argue that compact cities are beneficial in reducing commuter distance for employees and residents. This has a corresponding positive effect on reducing emissions. This view corresponds to Hamin and Gurran (2009, p. 238). They, however, recognize loopholes for possible policy conflicts arising from local contributions of such mitigation to climate change. Jensen, Christensen, & Gram-Hanssen, (2011, p.1) argue that the benefits that can be accrued from a com pact city setting are ambiguous. This is in agreement with Gaigne et al who view the benefits as a tradeoff. In another article, Nygard, Cao, Csordas, Larssen, Liu, Strand and Zhang (2012, p. 438) argue that Chinese cities have succeeded in bringing down emissions. This accrues from the congestion that discourages people from driving. Such a model can be replicated to other cities of the world. Mueller and Steiner (2011, p. 94) emphasize the need to exercise equity in formulation of policies for compact cities. They argue that
Monday, November 18, 2019
Dunnings eclectic Principle - Essay Example The given three principles have been taken from various theoretical approaches; hence John Dunning labeled his approach as Ã¢â¬ËeclecticÃ¢â¬â¢. It was Dunning who in the year 1980 which was given in Dickens in the year 1992 that any company would like to get itself engaged in the production arena internationally if the following three conditions are present. (Dicken p.109) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1. Every company possesses few specific advantages which if not in possession by any competing companies belonging from other nationalities where the advantage should be owner-specific in nature. (Dicken p.109) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. These kind of advantages are mostly exploited by certain companies itself rather than leasing or selling them to different companies. Citing it in different words, every company tries to internationalize the nature of ownership-specific advantages; and(Dicken p.109) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 3. it is more profitable for every company in exploiting the assets in international market other than doing it in domestic areas. It is true that factors like location-specific plays an important role with internationalization of the very nature of owner-specific while determining whether and where the overseas production takes place. (Dicken p.109) Ã Ã Ã The Advantage of ownership-specific is an asset which is internal to the company itself. In this case knowledge of specific type, human skill or organization and all these do require proprietary right for its use, like any right which is legally protected. (Dicken p.109) Extent and pattern of the internationalization its value-chain operations abroad: Calypso Rose when she was 29 became renowned in the business of accessories and bags. This particular business is now six years now and it is aiming at young women and teenage girl. This is a age of globalization and in this time it is necessary to make the business global. Clippy bags are the brand name and have gained recognition. They have kept this thing in account that global expansion strategy is in needful of the present hour. Presently the business surrounds the Japan and European market. (GLE Group pp. 1-3) Calypso Rose the tycoon business woman has been successfully running the business since the age of 23. The particular brand name Ã¢â¬ËClippyÃ¢â¬â¢ now has been successful in carryimg out international venture in different markets thereby gaining the company to strengthen its fundamental base in UK. They could do so by taking the help from the team of London International of UK Investment and trade. (GLE Group pp. 1-3) The brand Clippy brand has established a good stronghold in UK market before they were recognized internationally in the year 2007 by London International Trade Adviser, Gail Williams. the advice given by Gail Williams in the strategic area was useful in the early stages of the company especially in the export journey which helped the company to bring f orth the brand Clippy in the international market. During the time of recession in the year 2008, Calypso in a very intelligent manner expanded and modified her business for survival in this weird market. (GLE Group pp. 1-3) Utilization of certain schemes, by Calypso, likes the Trade Access Program (TAP) and Passport for Export so that their product can be put up on international base. In addition, the assistance from an international adviser on trade has helped Clippy a lot in formalizing the export strategy for targeting the markets of Europe. The funding which the company received from TAP helped them in exhibiting in the European market. During this period Calypso met her European distributor. Being a small company it believed in cash flow so funding became invaluable. With the success, which it got initially, helped the compan
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Dominos History and Analysis History of Dominos Dominos Pizza was brought to America by Italian immigrants in the 1800s and it grew in popularity as a pie of choice and rose to popularity hence necessitating the nee for Dominos chain to be created. The companys business model was its reliance on delivery (which was set at 30 minutes) and a focus on efficient and streamlined processes of taking pizza orders, preparing them and delivering them to consumers. With Dominos success on its pizza delivery time the company it appeared as though the company substituted quality service for quality product hence the decline in Dominos shares. Dominos crisis. With the success of Dominos, customers where also demanding more from their pizza maker, they wanted better tasting pizza that had flavour. From the material provided, it is evident that Dominos became comfortable in their position to recognized as the leader in Pizza delivery and did not carry out any market research in other to find ways to improve their product and guarantee customer satisfaction. Marketing research generally comprises of a product research in terms of market need that a business wants to satisfy as well as the size and characteristics of the market (new or old) by identifying consumer preferences and buying behavior. Another reason for the Dominos Crisis was that the 30 minutes delivery time was not uniform for every Dominos outlet. Depending on how big a Dominos shop service area was the 30 minutes delivery time worked perfectly, but where the area is large and considering other factors the timing was different. Attribute analysis Attribute analysis is the process of breaking down a problem, idea, or thing into component parts and then thinking about the attributes of the problem rather than the thing itself by taking into consideration the crucial aspects of a companys business model and turning it around (IAF, 2009). What this means is that with rising customer dissatisfaction which is evident not only through surveys, feedbacks and word of mouth. There was the need for the Pizza turnaround programme because as at 2009 Dominos quarter revenue had dropped by 6.5% and as such there was the need for a massive overhaul of the companies financial and operational parameters. What was considered in this regard is how great pizza could be made while still maintaining the unique selling point which was the timing (30 minutes delivery time). Attribute analysis was used by simply identifying key problems that had been collated through customers feedback. This feedback was put together and to ensure customer loyalty product was improved and this improvement saw a 65% increase in repeat purchase by customers (Worldwide 2017). By meeting the challenges head on the turn around team did a road show with their franchises introducing the new and improved pizza as well as carried out blind test road show. From the road show a number of customers preferred the new taste. The success of any new initiative by an organization is highly dependant on the involvement of every member of the team directly involved in the product. Attribute analysis helped Dominos identify specific areas that needed improvement and then the next step was to inform senior management team of the negative feedback they had received from customers and management team saw the need to immediately turn around their pizza operations. In general, this case points to the fact that for any brand to successfully transform itself to one capable of competing for customers with the competition, creating a strong position for future growth is reliant on customer feedback, continued effort to improve product offering and in taking feedbacks and customer suggestions seriously. Concept testing approaches in my opinion created an opportunity for customers to be aware of the various efforts been made by Dominos to satisfy them through new and improved products. This no doubt helped Dominos grow and position itself favourably in the hearts of its customers. References Australian food News, February 2015. Dominos attributes record profits to innovations and new initiatives. Retrieved from: http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2015/02/11/dominos-attributes-record-profits-to-innovations-and-new-initiatives.html. Accessed 13 January 2017. IAF methods database. October 2009. Attribute analysis. Retrieved from: http://www.iaf-methods.org/node/11163. Accessed 13 January 2017. Worldwide.com. February 2017. How Dominos repositioned itself from pizza delivery to mealtime solution. Retrieved from: http://iris-worldwide.com/news/how-dominos-repositioned-itself-from-pizza-delivery-to-mealtime-solution/. Accessed 13 January 2017.